This is a silicon wafer with RAM microchips lithographically printed on them. They’re mass produced in this wafer form, and then later cut down, and packaged into dies. These particular wafers contain mostly RAM. They were manufactured for Ford Aerospace back in the mid 1980s.
In the closeup you can zoom all the way in, and resolve the details of individual transistors. Just a year or two later, that would no longer have been possible without much more powerful microscopes. The transistors etched onto these wafers are positively huge by modern standards…hundreds, or thousands of times larger.
via Flickr http://flic.kr/p/efAmjs